Dr Kalpit Patel (MS Ortho, FRCS)

(Specialist Joint Replacement Surgeon)

Get to know about YOUR KNEE

The Anatomy Of The Knee Joint The knee joint performs similar to a hinge joint. It consists of three bones

Know Your Knee

The "Normal" Knee Joint

The knee joint performs similar to a hinge joint. It consists of three bones

  • Thigh bone (Femur)
  • Leg bone (Tibia)
  • Knee cap (Patella)

Three bones contact each other to form a hinge knee joint. The surfaces of all three bones coming into contact with each other are normally covered
with a smooth gliding surface known as articular cartilage.About 3-5 ml of lubricant fluid ( joint fluid) is normally present.

The junction where the femur and tibia couple together is called the femorotibial joint.The region of the knee where the patella and femur form a junction is called the patellofemoral joint.
These two joints are what allow the bending and straightening of the knee. It is these joints that are replaced in a total knee joint Replacement.
Generally speaking, there are four major ligaments that play an important part in stability of the knee joint. One on each side of the knee (but actually outside the joint) known as collateral ligaments and two more centrally located ligaments within the joint known as anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments.

Knee Problems

The word arthritis comes from the Greek arthron meaning "joint" and the Latin itis meaning "inflammation". Arthritis affects the musculoskeletal system, specifically the joints. It is the main cause of disability among people over fifty-five years of age in INDIA.
Arthritis is not a single disease - it is a term that covers over 100 medical conditions. Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and generally affects elderly patients. Some forms of arthritis can affect people at a very early age.

Pain Ful Limping Video

Types of arthritis

Osteo- arthritis (OA) of the knee joint is the commonest type of arthritis and disability due to (OA) is comparable to major medical problems like diabetes and high BP. It is also called "wear and tear".Arthritis and is the most common reason for individuals to undergo knee replacement surgery in India.

Data from Knee & Hip Clinic, Baroda – out of 1500 knee replacements done by Dr Kalpit Patel so far, around 90% patients had Osteoarthritis as a cause.

What goes wrong in an arthritic knee?

The major problem in osteoarthritis of the knee joint is that the smooth cartilage lining the inside of the joint wears away. This results in a narrowing of the joint space with the development of cysts and erosions in the bone ends. As a result, bone comes directly in contact with bone, which will be painful. Bone spurs (small bone growths) form around the joint. All of these changes ultimately lead to increasing pain and stiffness of the joint.

What is the chance of you being affected by OA Knee?

Osteo-arthritis is a part of ageing process and so it is not really a disease. Although research continues in understanding of this condition; it is very difficult to predict as to who will be unlucky enough to suffer from OA knee. People with predisposing factors like obesity, knee injury, family history and genetics have 50 % chance of developing Osteoarthritis after the age of 50 years.

Rheumatoid arthritis this is an inflammatory form of arthritis. The protective lining (synovial membrane) of knee joint is attacked by body’s own defence mechanism resulting in joint swelling and knee pain. If left untreated the rheumatoid arthritis can lead to joint destruction and limb deformity. Rheumatoid arthritis is significantly more common in women than men and generally strikes when the patient is aged around 40. However, children and much older people may also be affected.

Post-traumatic arthritis, a type of arthritis that can arise following an injury to the joint cartilage or damage to the ligaments leading to an unstable knee long after the original injury and ultimately result in the need for a knee replacement.

Infectious arthritis (septic arthritis) -an infection in the synovial fluid and tissues of a joint caused by Bacteria, fungi or viruses and infect a joint. Most susceptible people are those who already have some form of arthritis and develop an infection that travels in the bloodstream.